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THE CIVIL WAR OF SOUTH SUDAN ( 1955-2013 )

The Civil War Of South Sudan ( 1955-2013 )
After Sudan gained its sovereignty from the Great Britain in 1956, it faced longest civil wars in Africa. It is involving in ethnical, religious conflicts between the ruling political factions in Khartoum and the Southern rebel groups. According to the former rebel commander, Joseph Lago, The first armed insurgency, actually started in 20. September 1963. After thirty years of civil war, the war ceased by the 1972 Addis Ababa agreement, which gave significant regional autonomy to southern Sudan on internal issues. The second civil war exploded in 1983 due longstanding issues heightened by then president Jaafar Nimeiri’s decision to introduce Sharia law. Fighting breaks out again between north and south Sudan, under the direction of John Garang's Sudanese People's Liberation Movement (SPLM), after Sudanese President Jaafar Numeiri abolishes South Sudan's autonomy. The conflict ended by the 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) which was signed by the ruling party in Khartoum   (National Congres Party)  and the Sudan people’s liberation Movement ( SPLM ), after 6 years of peace, referendum was held in January 2011 when 98%  of Southern Sudanese voted for independence and the Republic of South Sudan was declared in 2011. Unfortunately, the third civil war started just years after the independence of South Sudan, it started between the two biggest tribe ( Dinka - Nuer tribes), that were dominated the country. The main reasons for this civil war can be divided into five reasons; The ethnic conflicts, The absence of a charismatic leader, The corruptions, The proliferation of weapons and formed an aggressive relation with the Republic of Sudan.
Firstly: The ethnic (tribal) conflicts; SPLM’s directors are members of different tribes of South Sudan ( Dinka, Nuer, Shouluk..etc). For instance, Salva Kiir’s( the president of SPLM) the most populous tribe in south Sudan Dinka tribe, Riek Machar’s tribe is Nuer and the General secretary of SPLM, Bagan Amom is from Shouluk tribe. These three tribes are the biggest tribe in South Sudan, and since Lado’s  Kingdom those are hostile each other. The only things unite  these against tribes are the hostility of the government of Khartoum and the foreign aids.
The people’s of Souther Sudan are violence and hardness also is known Angry Nation. The history witnessed that, for a simple reason those tribes were fighting to each other. And the result of those tribal wars thousands of innocent people was dead and these tribal wars has increased the hostility between these against tribes.
Secondly: The absence of  the charismatic leader: Johne Garang was united all those against tribes and he was the founder of the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement. He graduated from Grinnell College in 1969 and he studied at the University of California, Economic Faculty (1969_1973). Garang won the hearts of all tribes in South Sudan. He had a new Sudan Vision plan. The plan includes secularized Sudan and to remove it from The İslamic and Arab unity. The implementation of this plan was never easy because the government in Khartoum is adopting the ideology of Islam and defends İslam and Sharia. After 22 years of armed struggle ( 1983_2005) Garang has signed a peace treaty with Khartoum Government  in Nayruby in 2005 and he returned Khartoum. The most interesting thing he died 22 days later in helicopter’s crash in Sudan – Uganda border.
Who’s behind the Garang's death?
Uganda always had supported Garang in his the struggle of the Sudanese government. But the Sudanese government holds responsible ( to blame ) for the death the Ugandan intelligence. Becuase the helicopter has belonged to Ugandan intelligence and on top of that Garang was returned to Sudan from Uganda. With Garang’s death, Uganda aimed to create chaos in Sudan. As expected, there are hundreds of people were killed in Khartoum. So the plan of Uganda was held and Salva Kiir was the head of SPLM. Some leader’s of SPLM was not wanted Salva Kiir to be the president of SPLM. The separation was started between the SLPM’s leaders and they were blamed each other for being responsible for Garang’s death. 
Thirdly: Corruptions; the CPA formalised a power- sharing system between the SPLM and the ruling political faction in Khartoum, National Congress Party. The both party was established a federal system in Sudan and held seats in a national unity government. The south, ruled by SPLM and shared a % 50 of oil revenues. With  the proclamation of independence in 2011, % 75 of oil revenues stayed in South Sudan. but the South Sudanese government, to development, choose the armaments.
A portion of oil revenues was used for the share due to the generals of Sudan People’s Liberation Army and who are leading of SPLM and Salva Kiir has provided a great opportunity for them, for example, villas, high salary...etc.
South Sudan is perceived as one of the most corrupt countries in the world, according to transparency İnternayional’ annual Corruption  perceptions Index.2014. according to America Aljazeera ( Many experts would agree that South Sudan—the world’s newest country, officially created in July 2011—owes its existence to support from politicians, advocates and activists from outside its borders ).
Fourthly: The proliferation of weapons; because 50 years of civil war, whole tribes in South Sudan have guns, also carry guns come to one piece of them. After the declaration of independence, weapons collection’s plan was started by the government, but it is not managed to collect all the weapons.
Last but not least, formed an aggressive relation with the Republic of Sudan: it is not formed a good relation with the Republic of Sudan; the Republic of Sudan is the frist state to recognize South Sudan, even the president Elbashir went to celebrate the independence by himself. But by cutting the electricity, they cut his speech and this was a sing bad faith of the SPLM’s government. Besides that, without solving  all problems of the borders between Sudan and South Sudan, the self - determination was declared. Maybe this problem will be a reason for a conflict between the two countries in future, according to FM assistant of  the president of Sudan Nafi Ali Nafi said.
References:
http://eprints.lse.ac.uk/28869/1/SouthernSudanAtOddsWithItself.pdf
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7okF15IeSXE. 
http://www.insightonconflict.org/conflicts/sudan/conflict-profile/
 http://www.enoughproject.org/conflicts/sudans/history-of-the-conflict.
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-14019202
http://america.aljazeera.com/watch/shows/fault-lines/articles/2015/4/12/sudan-expert-international-community-enabled-south-sudanese-corruption.html
http://www.southsudannewsagency.com/opinion/columnists/the-power-of-weapons-proliferation
http://aljazeera.net/home/print/0353e88a-286d-4266-82c6-6094179ea26d/b5455a39-3d4d-
4eec-8eb0-3a323303ad06
http://www.southsudannewsagency.com/opinion/articles/who-killed-dr-john-garang
İbrahim NAASIR, Analyst, Strategic Outlook
22.01.2016 - Hit : 1226


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