WAR-PEACE-SECURITY TRIANGLE IN THE WORLD AND TURKEY
Almost every day, when you watch the news, it is seen that there are many problems affecting the lives of individuals in international relations. The most important of these problems are wars or conflicts due to it is concerned with the right to life which is a fundamental human right. About the conflict, J. Q. J. Goldstein and C. Pevehouse said "Conflict between States is not an unusual situation, but a normal situation. "(121). Cases that happen this much often and accepted as ordinary conditions are important in order to understand international relations. Conflict and security issues discussed in daily life are the main topics of the discipline of international relations. These issues were discussed with a book titled Uluslararası İlişkilerde Çatışmadan Güvenliğe(From Conflict to Security in International Relations) containing various articles in it and published an academic background in 2012. Although the book, which is published as a part of series of political science of Istanbul Bilgi University Press, appeals to rather scholars and students in the field of international relations, is written in a way that everyone, who want to have an idea on the subject, and anyone interested in the subject, can understand. Although the book places the terms of the discipline of international relations, descriptions include these terms play a major role in making it understandable. In this 508-page study, from universities both in Turkiye and abroad, twenty-five different authors' articles related to conflict and security previously published in various books and magazines are compiled by Mustafa Aydın, Hans Gunter Brauche, Necati Parker, Midhat Celikpala and Ursula Oswald Spring.
Uluslararası İlişkilerde Çatışmadan Güvenliğe(From Conflict to Security in International Relations) consists of three main sections except introduction and index parts. War, security and peace theories are mentioned in the two articles in the introduction part. This is beneficial to obtain a general opinion for readers before reading the discussions on these issues. In the first chapter titled "War and Conflict", "Great Company: Kant and Clausewitz" and "Rousseau's Theory of War and Peace: Justice and Partnership" his first articles explain these concepts in a historical process drawing a conceptual framework of testimonies of war and just war. The next two article are about terrorism which is a common form of conflict today. On security issues, the article titled "Identity-Based Security Threats in a Globalized World in the Case of Islam" written by Mustafa Aydin and Sinem A. Acikmese has an importance both in terms of drawing attention to the relationship between identity and threat with current examples and guiding the reader to other resources. As to the last article written by Haldun Yalcinkaya in the section, it emphasizes how the media is important in creating the agenda via sharing of information while it is analyzing the last point soldiers and media relations have.
The book's second section with the name "Peace and Security" is the most comprehensive section containing 16 article on the subject. The first articles in the chapter focuses on the concepts of peace and security and examines them with the debates done on in a historical process. Thus, readers may have a better opportunity to see the transformation of concepts. For example, in his judicial article titled "The Concept of Security in International Relations", John Baylis described the change of the concept as:
Positivist approaches are opposed by post-positivists. The central role of the state in the realist thought is opposed by those who think the government is given an unnecessary privilege. In addition, security's description that is traditionally narrow and substantially military is replaced by a broader understanding about what it means to be "safe" or "unsafe".(165)
Regional security matter is discussed in Úrsula Oswald Spring's article titled "Eastern on Peace in Latin America, European and Indigenous Thought" with the example of Latin America. As for J. Frederick M. Arends' article titled "From Homeros to Hobbes and Beyond: 'Security' Concept in Europe", his thoughts on security in Europe from the past to the present are described. To describe the changing meaning of the concept of security, articles describing the dimensions such as economic security, social security, environmental security and military security are very useful in that it provides explanations of the concepts and discussions about each topic, and opportunities to see the first times of discussions started with Homeros and the last times to the present. Especially about military security, touching upon private military companies in Burak Tangor and Haldun Yancinkaya's article is important in terms of forming a judgment about non-state war actors which is a current issue in international relations. Related to conflict resolution, while Mustafa Ercan Yılmaz is summarising under what conditions a third-party intervention can occur and its objectives, Sezai Ozcelik tries to explain pre-conflict diplomacy in his article titled "Practice of Preventive Diplomacy and its Theory" over examples such as Albania and Macedonia.
Even though the book is mainly about the discussions on conflict and security in the international arena, it also includes a section on Turkiye. This third and final section with the name of "From War to Security in Turkiye" consists of three articles written on conflict and security issues in Turkiye. The first of these is Serdar Palabiyik's article titled "The Idea of Political War in Turkiye". The article, in which the perception of war is examined from period to period since the establishment of the Ottoman Empire until the early years of the Republic of Turkiye, has an importance in terms of drawing a historical panorama for perception of war. In Necati Polat's article titled "The Idea of Peace in Turkiye", understanding on this issue in Turkiye is tried to be explained with the notions about the concept of peace from Namik Kemal to Ziya Gokalp. In the last article of the book, "Conceptualising the Security in Turkiye", the security concept Turkiye has developed in the face of threats is discussed.
Uluslararası İlişkilerde Çatışmadan Güvenliğe(From Conflict to Security in International Relations) is a book that those who are interested in conflict, peace and security issues can find general discussions and in particular, can obtain an idea about the changing meanings of the security. It is important in terms of showing conceptual and methodological differences to the subject that the book, in which conflict and security are discussed extensively, has many authors both from Turkiye and other countries. Chapters and articles' arrangement is done well in terms of ensuring the integrity of the subject; however, when it is thought with the growing importance of the issue, it could be better to increase the number of articles dealing with these issues in a more comprehensive way on conflict and security in Turkiye. The book, which is useful in terms of transfering of terminology and discussions, is a candidate to become one of the main sources to consult due to it contains articles directly written in Turkish or translated to Turkish.
Baylis, John. “Security Concept in International Relations” Uluslararası İlişkilerde Çatışmadan Güvenliğe(From Conflict to Security in International Relations). İstanbul: Bilgi University Press, 2012.
Goldstein, J. S. ve J. C. Pevehouse. International Relations. Londra: Longman Publishing, 2007.